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By F. Jaroll. Texas State University.
The disease usually begins with a fever buy esomeprazole 20 mg on-line, poor appetite order 40mg esomeprazole free shipping, malaise (feeling vaguely unwell) buy cheap esomeprazole 20 mg online, and often with a sore throat buy discount esomeprazole 40mg on-line. The rash is usually located on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet order 40 mg esomeprazole with amex; it may also appear on the buttocks and/or genitalia. Rarely, the patient with coxsackievirus A16 infection may also develop “aseptic” or viral meningitis, in which the person has fever, headache, stiff neck, or back pain, and may need to be hospitalized for a few days. In 1998, a major outbreak in Taiwan caused nearly 130,000 cases and resulted in 78 deaths, nearly all of them in children under 5 years old. Newborns without maternal antibody who acquire this infection are at risk for serious disease with a high mortality rate. Therefore, pregnant women are frequently exposed to them, especially during summer and fall months. Most enteroviral infections during pregnancy cause mild or no illness in the mother. Although the available information is limited, currently there is no clear evidence that maternal enteroviral infection causes adverse outcomes of pregnancy such as abortion, stillbirth, or congenital defects. However, mothers infected shortly before delivery may pass the virus to the newborn. Babies born to mothers who have symptoms of enteroviral illness around the time of delivery are more likely to be infected. Most newborns infected with an enterovirus have mild illness, but, in rare cases, they may develop an overwhelming infection of many organs, including the liver and heart, and die from the infection. The risk of this severe illness in newborns is higher during the first two weeks of life. So throughout the pregnancy, practice good personal hygiene to reduce the risk of exposure to enteroviruses: Wash your hands with soap and water after contact with diapers and secretions from the nose or mouth. Persons who are newly infected with hepatitis B virus (acute infection) may develop symptoms such as loss of appetite, tiredness, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, dark (tea or cola-colored) urine, light- colored stools, and sometimes rash or joint pain. If the virus is present for more than six months, the person is considered to have a chronic (lifelong) infection. As long as persons are infected with the hepatitis B virus, they can spread the virus to other people. Approximately 25% to 50% of children infected between the ages of 1 and 5 years will develop chronic hepatitis. However, some people do develop non-specific symptoms at times when the virus is reproducing and causing liver problems. People with lifelong hepatitis B infection can develop cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, and/or liver failure, which can lead to death. An exposure is defined as contact with blood or other body fluids of an infected person. Contact includes touching the blood or body fluids when you have open cuts or wounds (that are less than 24 hours old or wounds that have reopened), splashing blood or bloody body fluids into the eyes or mouth, being stuck with a needle or other sharp object that has blood on it, or having sex or sharing needles with someone with hepatitis B virus. Everyone who has an exposure to a person infected with hepatitis B virus should have blood tests done as soon as possible to determine whether treatment is needed. In some cases, people who have already been vaccinated may be tested and/or revaccinated. If a mother develops hepatitis B during her pregnancy, there is a chance that the baby may also become infected. If the mother develops acute hepatitis in the third trimester of pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period, the risk of infection for the newborn baby may be 60% to 70%. It is very important that the baby receive treatment right after birth to get as much protection as possible. They may have the virus for the rest of their lives and be a source to spread the disease. All pregnant women should be tested for hepatitis B virus early in their pregnancy. Check with your healthcare provider for the schedule for dose 2 and dose 3 of the vaccine. Once the baby has turned 1 year of age, the baby should have a blood test to make sure infection did not occur and that the vaccine is protecting the baby. The blood test for hepatitis B may show that you: Are immune (had hepatitis B disease or vaccine in the past) and have no sign of recent infection. You should receive the hepatitis B vaccine series if you are at risk of blood exposures at your job or through risk behaviors in your personal life. Is there a way I can keep from being infected with hepatitis B during my pregnancy? In adults, the virus is most often spread through sexual contact or by sharing needles. Although it is rare, there are some children who become infected with the virus from their infected mothers during pregnancy, at the time of birth, or through breastfeeding. An exposure is defined as direct contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person.
Natural medicine is under siege generic esomeprazole 20mg, as pharmaceutical company lobbyists urge lawmakers to deprive Americans of the benefits of dietary supplements esomeprazole 20 mg cheap. Drug-company front groups have launched slanderous media campaigns to discredit the value of healthy lifestyles order 20mg esomeprazole amex. These attacks against natural medicine obscure a lethal problem that until now was buried in thousands of pages of scientific text order 40 mg esomeprazole fast delivery. In response to these baseless challenges to natural medicine purchase esomeprazole 40mg line, the Nutrition Institute of America commissioned an independent review of the quality of “government-approved” medicine. The startling findings from this meticulous study indicate that conventional medicine is “the leading cause of death” in the United States. The Nutrition Institute of America is a nonprofit organization that has sponsored independent research for the past 30 years. What you are about to read is a stunning compilation of facts that documents that those who seek to abolish consumer access to natural therapies are misleading the public. A definitive review of medical peer-reviewed journals and government health statistics shows that American medicine frequently causes more harm than good. Besser spoke in terms of tens of millions of unnecessary antibiotics prescribed annually. By comparison, approximately 699,697 Americans died of heart in 2001, while 553,251 died of cancer. Any invasive, unnecessary medical procedure must be considered as part of the larger iatrogenic picture. The figures on unnecessary events represent people who are thrust into a dangerous health care system. Simply entering a hospital could result in the following: In 16. Working with the most conservative figures from our statistics, we project the following 10-year death rates. Table 3: Estimated 10-Year Death Rates from Medical Intervention 10-Year Condition Author Deaths Adverse Drug Reaction 1. Our projected figures for unnecessary medical events occurring over a 10-year period also are dramatic. Medical science amasses tens of thousands of papers annually, each representing a tiny fragment of the whole picture. To look at only one piece and try to understand the benefits and risks is like standing an inch away from an elephant and trying to describe everything about it. Each specialty, each division of medicine keeps its own records and data on morbidity and mortality. We have now completed the painstaking work of reviewing thousands of studies and putting pieces of the puzzle together. Because of the extraordinarily narrow, technologically driven context in which contemporary medicine examines the human condition, we are completely missing the larger picture. Medicine is not taking into consideration the following critically important aspects of a healthy human organism: (a) stress and how it adversely affects the immune system and life processes; (b) insufficient exercise; (c) excessive caloric intake; (d) highly processed and denatured foods grown in denatured and chemically damaged soil; and (e) exposure to tens of thousands of environmental toxins. Instead of minimizing these disease-causing factors, we cause more illness through medical technology, diagnostic testing, overuse of medical and surgical procedures, and overuse of pharmaceutical drugs. The huge disservice of this therapeutic strategy is the result of little effort or money being spent on preventing disease. Underreporting of Iatrogenic Events As few as 5% and no more than 20% of iatrogenic acts are ever reported. In 1994, Leape said his figure of 180,000 medical mistakes resulting in death annually was equivalent to three jumbo-jet crashes every two days. What we must deduce from this report is that medicine is in need of complete and total reform—from the curriculum in medical schools to protecting patients from excessive medical intervention. It is obvious that we cannot change anything if we are not honest about what needs to be changed. We are fully aware of what stands in the way of change: powerful pharmaceutical and medical technology companies, along with other powerful groups with enormous vested interests in the business of medicine. They fund medical research, support medical schools and hospitals, and advertise in medical journals. Such funding can sway the balance of opinion from professional caution to uncritical acceptance of new therapies and drugs. You have only to look at the people who make up the hospital, medical, and government health advisory boards to see conflicts of interest. Erik Campbell, the lead author, said, "Our previous research with faculty has shown us that ties to industry can affect scientific behavior, leading to such things as trade secrecy and delays in publishing research. Marcia Angell struggled to bring greater attention to the problem of commercializing scientific research.
Growth depression in rats and chicks has been reported after feeding diets containing as much as l0 percent glycine (Harper et al discount esomeprazole 20mg otc. In patients with schizophrenia discount esomeprazole 20mg overnight delivery, oral doses of approximately 60 g/d of glycine for several weeks failed to reveal adverse effects (Leiderman et al purchase esomeprazole 40 mg amex. There have been no chronic dose–response studies with L-glycine in healthy humans cheap 20 mg esomeprazole otc. Further esomeprazole 40mg on line, men fed amino acid-based diets containing 10 g of nitrogen/d devoid of histidine remained in nitrogen balance for up to 2. Conversely, it has been observed that nitrogen balance becomes gradually negative over a longer period of time and nitrogen balance rapidly became positive upon the reintroduction of histidine (Kopple and Swendseid, 1975). Histidine is an important component of hemoglobin (8 percent), with the bulk being in the globin portion. In addition, the dipeptide carnosine, found in skeletal muscle, is a large store of histidine and serve as a source of histidine (Christman, 1971). Because of these large body pools of histidine it takes a prolonged period (more than 60 days) to deplete an adult of histidine. Men 51 through 70 years of age had the highest intakes at the 99th percentile of 5. Histidine given acutely by intraperitoneal injection or intravenously has been shown to result in changes in the concentration of brain amino acids (Oishi et al. Young rats (4 to 5 weeks old) treated with an inhibitor of histidinase exhibited reduced locomotor activity after an intra- peritoneal injection of histidine (250 mg/kg of body weight) (Dutra-Filho et al. Pilc and coworkers (1982) reported “bizarre behavior” in rats dosed intraperitoneally with histidine (400 to 800 mg/kg of body weight). Feeding low-protein diets supplemented with L-histidine for 3 to 4 weeks resulted in significant body weight losses after only several days in rats. However, the effects became less as increasing levels of high-quality protein were added to the diet (Benevenga and Steele, 1984). Short-term feeding studies (7 to 46 days) in rats have shown growth retardation, hepatomegaly, and hypercholesterolemia at L-histidine levels of approximately 2 to 4 g/kg body weight/d (Harvey et al. Harvey and coworkers (1981) reported significantly reduced concentra- tions of copper and zinc in the plasma and reduced liver concentrations of copper after feeding diets containing 8 percent L-histidine (~4 g/kg body weight/d) for 46 days. Hypercholesterolemia was eliminated by the simul- taneous feeding of an L-histidine- and copper-supplemented diet, support- ing the hypothesis that the histidine-induced hypercholesterolemia was a result of changes in copper status. No significant treatment-related increases in any tumors were reported when compared to matched controls. Pinals and coworkers (1977) treated 30 rheu- matoid arthritis patients and 30 controls daily with capsules containing 4. It is not clear which adverse effects were examined; however, the authors concluded that no adverse effects of the histidine therapy were noted. In a similar double-blind treatment design, Blumenkrantz and co- workers (1975) treated 42 patients (16 chronic uremic and 26 undergoing maintenance dialysis) with oral doses of 4 g/d of L-histidine for 17. No adverse effects were reported; however, it was not evident from the report which adverse effects were examined. Studies on the effects of L-histidine on taste and smell acuity in humans have produced conflicting results. Henkin and coworkers (1975) reported decreased taste and smell acuity in six patients given 8 to 65 g of histidine/d for up to 24 days. In view of the increased urinary excretion of zinc and a decreased concentration of serum zinc, the authors postulated that the effects of histidine administration were due to a zinc-deficient state. In a study of eight healthy men given 4 g/d of histidine for 2 weeks, no effects on smell or taste acuity were reported (Schechter and Prakash, 1979). Similarly, Geliebter and coworkers (1981) failed to find any effect of L-histidine on taste and smell after oral dosing of L-histidine between 24 and 64 g/d for 4 weeks. Even at the lower dose (4 g/d), adverse effects such as headaches, weakness, drowsiness, and nausea were reported, while at the highest doses (24 and 64 g/d) anorexia, painful sensations in the eyes, and changes in visual acuity were reported in two females. Although the study examined parental administration, it pro- vides further evidence that excess histidine intake in humans can lead to histidine/zinc interactions that might lead to a zinc-deficient state. Dose–Response Assessment In experimental animals, the only dose–response study on the chronic oral administration of L-histidine was that of Ikezaki and coworkers (1996). However, this study utilized only two doses, neither of which demonstrated any adverse effects. In addition, no data were reported on the possible effect of the doses on zinc or copper metabolism, an effect reported in both humans and experimental animals. However, this evidence should be considered tentative given the few indi- viduals studied and lack of dose–response information. There is evidence from studies in experimental animals and humans that intakes of high levels of histidine can alter copper and zinc metabolism. However, the lack of dose–response data precludes identifying the intake concentrations in humans required to elicit such responses. Carnitine is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids and is synthesized from lysine and methionine in the liver and kidney (Mayes, 1990).